Jennifer Ellison-Brown: The concepts of fitness

first_img Physical fitness is the ability of the body to carry out everyday activities without excessive fatigue and with enough energy remaining for other tasks. This means that as well as performing our normal daily tasks, we can also perform additional physical activities, including sports. Being fit is central to our health and sense of well-being. If we are healthy and fit, then the physical, mental, and social aspects of our lives are working well. Fitness is critical to success in sports. Physical fitness consists of health-related fitness and sports performance-related fitness. Exercise refers to a subset of physical activity – planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body designed specifically to improve one’s health and to maintain physical fitness. Fitness depends on such physiological factors as the heart’s ability to pump blood and the size of muscle fibres. Only exercise will significantly improve fitness. The World Health Organization recommends that individuals include a moderate amount of exercise on most, preferably all, days of the week (Fit and Well, 6th Edition 2005). In order to have good health, we should eat sensibly, engage in regular physical activity, get the required rest and sleep, limit alcohol intake, resist smoking and other social drugs, and improve our ability to cope with stress. It is important to adapt a healthy lifestyle for us to maintain our health. The following health-related fitness components are important for the human body to work efficiently: – Cardiovascular endurance – the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply fuel and oxygen to the muscles. – Muscular strength – the ability to exert an external force or to lift a heavy weight. – Muscular endurance – the ability of the muscles to repeatedly exert themselves. – Flexibility – having a wide range of motion in the joints. – Body composition – having the relative percentage of muscle, fat, bone, and other tissues of which the body is composed. – The ability to cope with stress. Physical benefits Performance-related fitness This is the level of physical fitness necessary for the demands of regular sporting activity. We may be fit from a health-related perspective but not be fit for sports. Each sport activity makes its own particular demands on the body. To be successful in sports, it is important to have health-related fitness and also to be as fit as possible in the performance-related components below. – Explosive strength (power) – the ability to combine speed and force in one explosive act. – Speed – the ability to move all or parts of the body as quickly as possible. – Agility – the ability to change direction of the body at speed. – Coordination – the ability to carry out a series of movements smoothly and efficiently in response to your senses. – Balance – the ability to maintain equilibrium when stationary or moving. – Reaction time – the ability to respond to a stimulus quickly. – Timing – the ability to coincide movement in relation to external factors (to act at the right moment). Exercise helps your mental well-being, too. – It is stimulating and enjoyable. – It relieves tension and stress, which can cause high blood pressure and heart disease. – Relieves aggression. – Relieves boredom and provides a challenge. – It helps you sleep better, so you feel more rested. – Boosts self-esteem. All these benefits mean that exercise helps you to meet the demands of your environment more easily. In other words, it makes you fitter. You can work harder, feel less tired, and enjoy life more. The way to improve your fitness is through exercise. The more easily you are able to meet demands, the less likely you are to suffer stress, fall ill, or injure yourself. Exercise increases your social well-being, especially if it’s in the form of a sport. – Boosts confidence. – Helps you cope better with difficult people and situation. – You will meet people, make good friends. – Develops team work and cooperation.center_img Definition of fitness Benefits of exercise Social benefits Health-related fitness Exercise helps you to look good and feel good. – It burns up stored body fat, so your shape improves. – Gives superb muscle tone. – Strengthens back and abdomen. – Strengthens bones. – Keeps joints flexible to encourage efficiency. – Strengthens heart and lungs, so you won’t get tired easily. – It helps to prevent heart disease, high blood pressure, back pain, cancer. – Slows the ageing process. Mental benefitslast_img read more

Gayle smashes whirlwind century in Guyana Anniversary All-Star game

first_imgGEORGETOWN, Guyana (CMC):Superstar Chris Gayle further enhanced his status as the world’s premier Twenty20 batsman with a whirlwind 100 in the Unity Cricket game here Saturday.The Jamaican left-hander blasted 101 from a mere 48 balls as his Legacy All Star XI chased down 177 to trounce 007 Warriors by three wickets with 19 balls to spare at the National Stadium at Providence.Gayle pummelled four fours and 11 sixes as he raced to his half-century off 34 balls and then required only a further 13 deliveries to reach three figures in an amazing innings.In the 14th over of the innings from leg-spinner Samuel Badree, which gushed 31 runs, Gayle smashed five consecutive sixes.Gayle, who put on 50 off 32 deliveries for the first wicket with AndrÈ Fletcher (18) eventually retired at 150 for one, with the All Stars well on their way to victory.Former West Indies stroke-maker Ramnaresh Sarwan weighed in with 24, while Windies all-rounder Dwayne Bravo struck 22.Earlier, West Indies limited overs opener Lendl Simmons stroked 50 off 38 balls with five fours and two sixes to help 007 Warriors up to 176 for eight off their 20 overs.West Indies Test captain Jason Holder managed just 13, while T20 skipper Darren Sammy got 12. T20 star Dwayne Smith failed with seven.Bravo claimed two for 23 with his medium pace.The game was a private venture staged to contribute to Guyana’s 50th Independence Anniversary celebrations.last_img read more

‘Admiral’ Bailey lifting Tivoli Gardens FC with ‘basics’ in RSPL

first_imgTwo-title winning Tivoli Gardens Football Club coach Glendon ‘Admiral’ Bailey has admitted that he found his former team in a less than ideal state and has been having to teach football tactics from the very basics.Bailey replaced Christopher Bender late this season and got his team off to a come-from-behind 2-1 win over Rivoli United at the Edward Seaga Sports Complex.”There is a lot of work to be done. First and foremost, I have to get them more tactically aware so they understand the role and understand where they are supposed to play on the football field and what time, and then the playing conditions,” Bailey outlined.When asked if his team could rebound to finish among the top four and make it into the semi-final round, Bailey said that he was not looking that far.”There is still a lot of work to be done; there is nothing to celebrate. In terms of the fitness level and the whole understanding role for the football field, there is still a long journey, still a long way to go, but it is always good to start out positive and winning,” stressed Bailey, who admits to taking time away from his musical career to deliver Tivoli from a relegation struggle.Tivoli then rallied to a similar 2-1 come-from-behind win over Harbour View on Sunday, taking them to four points ahead of the relegation zone and one point behind ninth-place Cavalier SC.”It was very important for us. I think it gets us out of the red temporarily. One step, one day at a time, but there is still a lot of work to be done,” Bailey said.last_img read more

Umpire banned after wrong line calls at CAREBACO Under-19 Championships

first_imgSANTO DOMINGO, Dominican Republic (CMC):An umpire, officiating in the Caribbean Regional Badminton Confederation (CAREBACO) International Under-19 Championship has been banned for the rest of the tournament after a number of wrong line calls led to the elimination of Guyanese player Narayan Ramdhani at the quarter-final stage.An investigation was carried out after a report was made to the chief umpire and tournament director following the controversial calls in the third set of a three-set encounter.Angel Marinez Ulloa of the Dominican Republic (DR) won the first set 20-16, but lost the second to his Guyanese opponent 18-21.However, Ramdhani was leading 20-16 in the third set when four wrong calls by the DR line judges favoured the DR player.As a result, the young Guyanese player lost the match 23-21, prompting the probe followed by the disciplinary action against the umpire, who has been prevented from officiating for the rest of the tournament.The team phase of the Under-19 CAREBACO tournament started on Monday, with Guyana in Group B alongside Puerto Rico, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago.Group A consists of Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, Suriname and Panama.last_img read more

Ramdin axed, Holder to lead Test team

first_imgBRIDGETOWN, Barbados (CMC): Wicketkeeper Denesh Ramdin has been axed as Test captain after just 15 months in charge and replaced by rising star and one-day skipper Jason Holder for the tour of Sri Lanka next month. The 23-year-old, who has played eight Tests and 33 one-day internationals (ODI) in his fledgling career, will lead a 15-man squad for the October 14 to November 12 series, which comprises two Tests, three ODIs, and two Twenty20s. Long identified as a future leader, Holder was handed the reins of the one-day team last January and managed to impress with the way he handled the unit. As a result, the West Indies Cricket Board said yesterday the recommendation by the Clive Lloyd-chaired selection panel to make him Test captain had been “endorsed unanimously” by directors during a teleconference last Wednesday. “The directors discussed the recommendation put forward by the selectors. We have all seen Jason’s clear leadership potential and believe he can perform an excellent job for West Indies cricket over many years. We congratulate him on his appointment,” Cameron said in a release. “We would like to thank Denesh for taking on the responsibility of leading the Test side over the last 15 months. He remains an integral part of West Indies cricket and will continue to have a vital role in our Test side.” Under fire after replacing veteran all-rounder Dwayne Bravo as ODI skipper, Holder endured a further baptism of fire when West Indies were hammered 4-1 in the five-match ODI series in South Africa last January. Holder also had a rough start at the ICC World Cup the following month when the Windies were upset by Ireland in their opening match, but his performance proved pivotal as they came back strongly to reach the quarter-finals. A lanky seamer and right-handed batsman, Holder showed his mettle with both bat and ball during the tournament, and Lloyd said he had done enough during his short stint to prove he was fit to lead the Test unit. “He is a young man that all of the selectors, people in the Caribbean, and worldwide believe has several of the qualities that can take our team forward,” the legendary former West Indies skipper said in the release. Though he broke into the team as a seamer, Holder’s batting has improved significantly in the longer version, where he has already scored a Test hundred and two half-centuries and averages 34. His unbeaten 103 against England last April came in difficult circumstances on the last day of the opening Test in Antigua when he managed to scramble a draw for the Windies. And last June, he stroked a flamboyant unbeaten 82 from just 63 balls in the second Test to prop up the West Indies batting. The 30-year-old Ramdin, meanwhile, was appointed to the role in May last year, replacing the long-serving Darren Sammy. He led West Indies in 13 Tests – winning four, losing seven, and drawing two. As captain, he managed 472 runs at an average of 22 and a highest score of 57. Lloyd said the decision to remove Ramdin was with the view to getting more from the player with the bat. He also said he had spoken to the veteran of 69 Tests about his new role in the side. “I have spoken to Denesh and he understood the situation and there was no animosity,” said Lloyd. new face Barbados left-arm spinner Jomel Warrican is the only new face in the side, with the uncapped all-rounder Carlos Brathwaite also included. Warrican, 23, took 49 wickets at nearly 15 runs apiece during the first-class season. The squad will undergo a preparation camp in Bridgetown from September 20 before departing for Sri Lanka eight days later. SQUAD: Jason Holder (captain), Kraigg Brathwaite (vice-captain), Devendra Bishoo, Carlos Brathwaite, Jermaine Blackwood, Darren Bravo, Rajindra Chandrika, Shane Dowrich, Shannon Gabriel, Shai Hope, Denesh Ramdin, Kemar Roach, Marlon Samuels, Jerome Taylor, Jomel Warrican.last_img read more

Former ICC chief Dalmiya dies at 75

first_imgNEW DELHI (AP):Jagmohan Dalmiya, a top sports administrator credited with making India a major financial power in cricket, has died. He was 75.The Board of Control for Cricket in India president and former International Cricket Council chief was admitted to a hospital in Kolkata last Thursday following a cardiac arrest. He died yesterday due to internal bleeding, according to hospital officials.The BCCI praised Dalmiya’s contribution to the sport.”As a visionary and a father figure of Indian cricket, Mr. Dalmiya worked toward the development of the game of cricket in India,” BCCI secretary Anurag Thakur said in a statement. “The cricketing fraternity will miss him dearly.”BIG MONEYDalmiya was credited with getting big money into Indian cricket in the 1990s, when as BCCI secretary he managed to start selling TV rights to private sports channels.”Mr. Dalmiya played a significant part in positioning Indian cricket at the global level and the astute administrator in him guided Indian cricket to greater heights. His untiring efforts will be remembered for generations to come and his contribution to Indian cricket will remain unparalleled,” Thakur said.Dalmiya was also credited with helping bring the cricket World Cup to India in 1987 and 1996.Dalmiya was ICC president from 1997 to 2000 and BCCI president from 2001 to 2004.Dalmiya returned as BCCI chief this year after a decade away. He was a consensus candidate following the spot-fixing allegations during the 2013 Indian Premier League, which forced out Narainaswamy Srinivasan on a Supreme Court directive.India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi and leading cricketers in the country, including retired batting great Sachin Tendulkar, were among those to pay tribute to Dalmiya.”Heartfelt condolences to the family & friends of Jagmohan Dalmiya,” Tendulkar tweeted. “Had met him in June. little did I realise that it would be the last.”The ICC also expressed its “deepest condolences.”last_img read more

Broadway setting the early pace

first_imgWestern Bureau:Broadway are already looking to become the next powerhouse in Division Two of the Charley’s JB Overproof Rum Western Jamaica Domino competition, after stopping Peace and Love 300-291 in a tough clash on Sunday.Broadway led by a slender three points and managed to maintain the lead in the hard-fought battle that took them to a third-straight victory of the new season.”We have a real team together playing as a family and we have team spirit because when we are down we don’t give up,” said Junior ‘Cutta’ Rowe, one of Broadway’s long-standing member.Rowe said the team is now looking forward to its next match and is confident of another win.”We will be going for the win again in our next match. The team we are playing next we played them already and beat them two times during the last season,” stated Rowe, whose team will be next be going up against Venus of Waterworks, Westmoreland.Venus defeated Pineapple 300-281, Perry Strikers thrashed Next Generation 300-280, and Creative Strikers took down Night Riders 300-285 in the other Division Two matches.Another win for DallasElsewhere, Dallas secured win number two of the season in Division One, with an eight-point victory over Western Stars 300-292. Rainbow crushed Tornado 300-267, and Uptown defeated Assassin 300-281.Strike Force copped another win in the Premier League to solidify their lead, trouncing Classic 300-260.Deeside Untouchables took down Fighter Jet 300-295, Dynasty won Dynamic Strikers 300-268, and Tuff Gong conquered Might Strikers 300-254. The Unity Strikers versus Long Bay match was postponed. A new date will be announced.Matches in all three zones of the competition will continue tomorrow at 1 p.m.last_img read more

STETHS, Lacovia, Munro set up interesting finale in ISSA/FLOW daCosta Cup

first_imgWESTERN BUREAU:The big three in Group E of the 2015 ISSA/FLOW daCosta Cup, St Elizabeth Technical High School (STETHS), Munro College and the ever-improving Lacovia High, all logged important victories to keep the group wide open with one round of matches remaining to decide who will move into the inter-zone round.In the meantime, unbeaten Manchester High continued their relentless form in a thoroughly one-sided 20-0 drubbing of Winston Jones High.STETHS again proved rather difficult to break down when playing at home, as found out by the visiting B.B. Coke High team in a heavy 4-0 defeat.Victory moved them to 18 points, still second behind Lacovia (19), who edged Maggotty High 1-0. Munro, who won 2-0 at Newell, are third on 16 points.Hot striker Michael ‘Diddy’ Kerr hit a brace for STETHS either side of the half-time break, while there was a goal apiece from Shawn Genus and Demar James.”We needed goals and these three points, and we got them in another positive display of controlled football,” declared STETHS’ coach, Omar Wedderburn.”I am satisfied with what we did today and now we are looking to Saturday for another three points, and I hope it will be good enough to top the group,” he added.Saturday will be a tell-all for the teams in Group E, with STETHS facing Newell, Munro meeting Lacovia and B.B. Coke taking on Maggotty.Meanwhile, St James High are celebrating a minor accomplishment for topping Group A, after their 3-0 win over Green Pond High, which earned them their 14th point, two more than Cornwall College.Yesterday’s resultsManchester 20 Winston Jones 0St James 3 Green Pond 0Lacovia 1 Maggotty 0Newell 0 Munro 2STETHS 4 B.B. Coke 0Green Island 2 Frome 1Knox 1 Spalding 2Godfrey Stewart 1 Maud McLeod 0Little London 0 Petersfield 6Lennon 3 Kellits 0Ewarton 1 Dinthill 0Thompson Town 2 Edwin Allen 1last_img read more

WI suffer innings defeat in first test against Sri Lanka

first_imgGALLE, Sri Lanka (CMC):West Indies crumbled to a pathetic innings and six-run defeat to Sri Lanka inside four days in their opening Test at the Galle International Stadium here yesterday.Jermaine Blackwood fell eight runs shy of a century in a brave effort to avert the innings defeat, but the West Indies, who were asked to bat a second time, were bowled out for 227 in their second innings in the second session.Just like in the first innings, several frontline batsmen failed to capitalise on starts as the left-arm spinner Rangana Herath returned to haunt the Caribbean side with a four-wicket haul to finish the match with his fifth 10-wicket haul in Tests.West Indies, resuming the day on 67 for two, facing a deficit of 166, failed to make full use of an over reliance on Herath and lost their final eight wickets for just 160 runs on a slow Galle pitch.Marlon Samuels, one of Herath’s victims, was dismissed for a first ball duck, staying on the back foot to a ball he should have been playing to on the front foot.The Caribbean side were tottering on 88 for five, after losing opener Kraigg Brathwaite for 34 and Darren Bravo for 31, when Blackwood arrived to launch an enterprising attempt to salvage Windies pride.The diminutive Jamaican hit 10 fours and three sixes in his 169-minute occupation of the crease, while confirming his status as a promising West Indies investment.For the most part, he batted freely, using his feet to get down the track to launch Tharindu Kaushal over mid-on for six and drive Milinda Siriwardana for four while running out of partners.Blackwood carved out a 48-run sixth-wicket stand with Denesh Ramdin, which ended when the partnership was giving West Indies a glimmer of hope.Ramdin went for 11, driving loosely at Siriwardana and edged to second slip, while Blackwood almost followed in the next over with an edge, spilled by Angelo Mathews of Kusal Perera’s glove.Blackwood reached his half-century just after lunch with support from captain Jason Holder, who hung around long enough to add 36 with him for the seventh.However, Holder was run out for 18 in unfortunate circumstances as he played across a ball from Herath, which deflected off his pad to Mathews at slip.Mathews, spotting Holder out of his crease, threw down the stumps with a direct hit.Kemar Roach was removed in similar fashion to his first innings dismissal to become only the fifth West Indian to get stumped in both innings of a Test match.When Jerome Taylor departed, lbw to Prasad for five, West Indies were nine down with 44 wickets, still needing to avoid an innings defeat.Blackwood had no option but to farm the strike to push his side as close as possible and succeeded in rattling Herath, hitting him for two fours and two sixes in the space of nine balls.But the pressure mounted on Blackwood on 92, with nine fielders on the boundary as he ran down the track, only to pick out the cover boundary, leaving Shannon Gabriel not out on seven.SCOREBOARDSRI LANKA 1st innings 484WEST INDIES 1st Innings 251West Indies 2nd innings 227 (67-2 overnight)KC Brathwaite lbw b Herath 34SD Hope b Siriwardana 6DM Bravo c +Perera b Pradeep 31D Bishoo c Mathews b Herath 10MN Samuels lbw b Herath 0J Blackwood c Silva b Prasad 92D Ramdin+ c Silva b Siriwardana 11JO Holder* run out (Mathews) 18KAJ Roach st +Perera b Herath 5JE Taylor lbw b Prasad 5ST Gabriel not out 7Extras: (lb 3, w 2, nb 3) 8Total (all out) 227Fall of wickets: 1-18 (Hope), 2-60 (Brathwaite), 3-74 (Bishoo), 4-74 (Samuels), 5-88 (Bravo), 6-136 (Ramdin), 7-172 (Holder), 8-178 (Roach), 9-189 (Taylor), 10-227 (Blackwood).Bowling: Prasad 9.3-3-28-2, Herath 22-5-79-4, Pradeep 14-1-28-1, Siriwardana12-1-60-2, Kaushal 11-3-29-0.Position: West Indies lost by an innings and six runs.Toss: Sri LankaUmpires: Marais Erasmus, Richard Illingworth; TV – Simon Frylast_img read more

Remembering Munich … History-making Jamaican Olympic diver looks back at German memories

first_img It will become the scene of both her most fulfilling and horrific experiences, but for the Olympian, it was the moment that defined her for the rest of her life. “That one was the pinnacle, because once you are an Olympian, you will always be an Olympian. That is something no one can ever take away from you. I was proud to represent my country,” said Sharpe during a recent chat with The Gleaner. A great accomplishment for a bright-eyed 16 year-old; still, the Munich Olympics, which were ironically marketed as ‘The Happy Games’, will be mostly remembered for the killing of 11 Israeli athletes and coaches by a group of Palestinian terrorists who had taken them hostage. Sharpe reminisced on the scenes in the Athletes Village and how that incident not only changed the mood of the Games, but also her own perspective. “I remember probably more than I want to remember from it. We could see the terrorist standing outside on the balcony with his gun because of the way the village was set out,” she shared. “The mood of the Games changed. The last time it was held in Germany, it was held in Berlin, and the whole thing with Jesse Owens and (Adolf) Hitler, and so Germany was going out of their way to try and make this a comfortable, friendly games, and that’s how we felt about it.” The extra security detail and the jubilant reactions to the false news that the hostages had been freed are all still fresh in her mind. “I was going through the line at breakfast and I had a smile on my face and the lady that was serving me breakfast she said ‘You don’t know do you? Nobody knows.’ “And I said, ‘Know what?’ And she said, ‘They were all killed.” What didn’t die for Sharpe, is the resolve that she developed from that experience. “Its not something that I usually tell people. I don’t believe in tooting my own horn from that point of view. There is something inside of me that no one can take away from me; I know what my accomplishments are, I just feel like I can hold myself up so high from the experience of being an Olympian, and I always have that self confidence and that’s what reaching that level of sports gives you – you know who you are,” she beamed. This summer, she will have company in the chronicles of Jamaican diving history with Yona Knight-Wisdom set to carve his name beside hers as Jamaican diving Olympian after his qualification to the Rio Olympic Games. MUNICH 1972 In 1966, a Gleaner article declared: “Jamaicans are naturally athletic and agile people, and we could produce divers of world class if more attention was paid to this aspect of swimming.” This bold proclamation was made just after 10 year-old Betsy Sullivan had represented Jamaica in 3m diving competition at the 1966 Commonwealth Games held in Kingston. ” … at that age you kind of know no fear. Whatever is there to do you just do it. Life is just for living at that age, you’re enjoying yourself and having a great time, totally oblivious to the fact I had qualified to a games at age 10 and the magnitude of what that meant. I was just an average 10 year-old playing with my friends, having a good time,” she remembered. “I wasn’t there to win, I didn’t have any expectations at that age, it was just a good experience and I really enjoyed it.” Six years down the road, the then – teenager, Sullivan – now Betsy Sharpe, became the first Jamaican to qualify for the Olympics in the diving event.last_img read more